The Properties Water...

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Experiment
THE PROPERTIES OF WATER
The Properties
Water
of
Margaret E. Vorndam
M.S. Version 42-012900-01
LAB REPORT ASSISTANT
This document is not meant to be a substitute for a formal laboratory report. The Lab
Report Assistant is simply a summary of the experiments questions, diagrams if
needed, and data tables that should be addressed in a formal lab report. The intent is to
facilitate students writing of lab reports by providing this information in an editable file
which can be sent to an instructor.
Exercise
Tension
1
Surface
RESULTS
A. State your hypothesis. What do you think will
happen?
Table 1: Results of Surface Tension Trials
Trial #
1
2
3
4
5 Compacted
6 + Detergent
(optional)
Paper Clip Weight
grams
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Does it Float? Yes/No
Hands-On Labs
Experiment
THE PROPERTIES OF WATER
B. Record the results of your trials in the Data Table 1 above.
C. Did the weight of the paper clip affect whether it floated or
not? D. Did the size of the paper clip affect whether it floated
or not?
E. Did the shape of the paper clip affect whether it floated or not?
F. Optional: Did the addition of detergent influence the flotation of the paper clip? Explain.
QUESTIONS
A. Why must the paper clips, tweezers, and bowl be
clean? B. If one paper clip did not float, what might be
a reason?
C. Was your original hypothesis supported or refuted?
DISCUSSION
A. Give two examples where the surface tension of water is important. Why is it
important in these examples?
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Experiment
THE PROPERTIES OF WATER
B. Would other liquids have the same surface tension property? Why or why not?
How might you test this (for instance, the behavior of a paper clip and olive oil)?
C. Is there a limit to the tensile strength of the water surface? Explain.
D. What experimental variables are important to consider when doing this
exercise? E. What is the purpose of this exercise?
Exercise 2: Capillary Action
RESULTS
A. State your hypothesis. What do you think will
happen? B. Record the results of your exercise in
the Data Table 2.
Table 2: Results of Capillary Action Exercise
Capillary Tube Internal Diameter, mm Height of Liquid
cm
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Hands-On Labs
Experiment
THE PROPERTIES OF WATER
C. Record the average results of at least three other students exercises in a table like
Table 3. Why is it important to note how many data sets (N) are used in the average?
N (number
averaged) =
of
data
sets
Table 3: Results of
Capillary
Action
Capillary Tube
Internal
Diameter, mm
Height of
Liquid, cm
D. Graph your data results from Tables 1 and 2 in a scatter graph, line graph, or bar
graph similar to the graph layout in Figure 1. Also present the average results of the
other students data using a second scatter, line or bar on the same graph so that the
results of both your data and other students data can be compared. The graph should
present two series of data, your results and the average students results, with Capillary
Tube Internal Diameter on the x-axis, and height of liquid on the y-axis. Note: Do the
graph by hand, or you may use a graphing program, and copy the resulting graph to
your work area. Place your graph here
E. What is the advantage of comparing your data to that of the other students data?
Which set of data would you trust the most? Why?
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Hands-On Labs
Experiment
THE PROPERTIES OF WATER
My data from Table 1 is recorded in
(student to specify color of line)
Other students average data from Table 2 are recorded in (student to specify color
of line)
QUESTIONS
A. What did you observe at the end time of the exercise?
B. What caused the difference in the results that you obtained?
C. How did your outcome compare to that of the other students?
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Hands-On Labs
Experiment
THE PROPERTIES OF WATER
D. Was there a linear relationship between Internal Diameter and the height of the
water? What might explain this?
E.
Was your original hypothesis supported or
refuted?
DISCUSSION
A. Give two examples where the capillary action of water is important. Why is it
important?
B. Would other liquids have the same property? Why or why not? How might you
test this?
C. Blood in our bodies travels through capillaries of differing internal diameters. This
means that our heart can work less hard, since blood contains water as part of the fluid
and the capillary action of water in tubes helps to move the blood along.
1. Why does blood pressure rise as patients experience the progression of
atherosclerotic disease?
Does this seem to be counter to what you have learned about capillary action?
How do you explain the apparent discrepancy (note: see also c., below)?
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Hands-On Labs
Experiment
2.
THE PROPERTIES OF WATER
In plants, vascular system elements called xylem and phloem are lined up like
long straws from the root of the plant to the leaves. The xylem of plants moves
water and dissolved nutrients up to the leaves. Can you suggest what aids the
movement of water up the plant, in addition to the capillary action of water?
3. Why is it harder to suck a beverage through a small diameter straw than through
a large diameter straw?
4. What experimental variables are important to consider when doing this exercise?
What could explain the difference in outcomes between your data and the data
of other students?
5. What is the purpose of this exercise?
Exercise 3: Density
RESULTS
A. State your hypothesis. What do you think will happen?
B. Record what actually happened here
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Hands-On Labs
Experiment
THE PROPERTIES OF WATER
QUESTIONS
A. What did you observe in this exercise?
B. How does this outcome compare to what you observe about the action of ice (the
solid form of water) on liquid water?
C. Was your original hypothesis supported or refuted?
DISCUSSION
A. Why is it important that ice floats?
B. Give two examples where the property of water density is important.
C. Do all solids float on their liquid forms? Why or why not?
D. The density of liquid olive oil is about 0.92. What can you say about the likely density
of solid oil? Why?
E. Will olive oil float or sink if it is added to liquid water? Why?
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Experiment
THE PROPERTIES OF WATER
F. What experimental variables are important to consider when doing this exercise?
G. Attempt to find another pure substance, like water or oil, in which the solid form
floats on the liquid form (Note: do not spend more than 5 minutes on this question!).
H. What did you learn from this exercise?
Exercise 4: Specific Heat Capacity
RESULTS
A. State your hypothesis. What do you think will happen?
B. What difference do you observe in the heights of the frozen solid oil and water as
compared to the liquid forms prior to freezing? What might explain this result?
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Experiment
THE PROPERTIES OF WATER
C. Record what actually happened in a table similar to Tables 4 and 5
Table 4: Results of Specific Heat Exercise for
Water
Ambient (Room)
Temperature
Time, minutes
Liquid Collected
mL
All solid ice
gone
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Hands-On Labs
Experiment
THE PROPERTIES OF WATER
Table 5: Results of Specific Heat Exercise
for Oil
Ambient (Room)
Temperature
in Which Exercise was Conducted
Time, minutes Liquid Collected, mL
All solid oil
gone
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Hands-On Labs
Experiment
THE PROPERTIES OF WATER
D. Graph your data results from Table 4 and 5 in a graph like Figure 2. Use a scatter
graph or progressive line graph, with Time noted on the x-axis, and mL of liquid
collected on the y-axis. You should have two scatter plots or lines on your graph (not
two separate graphs) one for water and one for oil. Note: you may use a graphing
program, and copy the resulting graph to your work area. Place your graph here
E. Calculate the melting rate for each of water and oil. The melting rate is equal to
the slope of each of the separate lines of your graph, one for water, and one for oil. The
easiest way to calculate the slope for each is to use your graphing program, and ask it to
determine the trendline for you, as follows
F. Share your melting rate for water and the oil with other students, if possible. Make
sure to also obtain the ambient (room) temperature from the other students. Why?
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Hands-On Labs
Experiment
THE PROPERTIES OF WATER
Table 6: Comparison of Melting Rates for Specific Heat Exercise
Results Reported
By
Student
Student A
Student B
Student C
Student D
Average =
Water, mL/min
m
Oil, mL/min
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Hands-On Labs
General Ambient
Temperature, C.
Experiment
THE PROPERTIES OF WATER
QUESTIONS
A. Was your original hypothesis supported or refuted?
B. What do you observe concerning the plot line of the oil versus the plot line of the
water? What does this mean?
C. How close is your melting rate to the melting rates reported by at least three other
students for the water and for the oil?
D. Generally, what might you conclude about the amount of specific heat needed to melt 50 mL
of water versus 50 mL of oil?
E. How could you explain the differences in your data observations as to when the
water and oil began to melt?
F. What experimental variables are important to consider when doing this exercise?
What could explain the difference in outcomes between your data and the data of other
students?
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Hands-On Labs
Experiment
THE PROPERTIES OF WATER
DISCUSSION
A. How might you design a similar experiment to determine whether the specific heat
(amount of heat required to raise 1 gram of a material by 1 C) of one substance is more
or less than another substance? What variables must you consider in the design of
your experiment? Give an example of such an experiment that compares the specific
heats for two different substances.
B. An alternative energy-savvy person decides to use 55 gallon drums filled with liquid
to warm her house at night in the winter. She has to make a decision about what liquid
will be the most efficient at storing heat from sunlight that shines on the drums during
the day. Should she use water or oil in the drums? Why?
LABORATORY SUMMARY
What have you learned from doing this
laboratory?

 

Solution ID:350795 | This paper was updated on 26-Nov-2015

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