Introduction to Science...

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Biology 102/103
Lab 1: Introduction to Science
INSTRUCTIONS
and submit it via the Assignments Folder by the date listed in the Course
Schedule (under Syllabus).
To conduct your laboratory exercises, use the Laboratory Manual located under
Course Content. Read the introduction and the directions for each exercise/experiment
carefully before completing the exercises/experiments and answering the questions.
Save your Lab 1 Answer Sheet in the following format: LastName_Lab1 (e.g.
Smith_Lab1).
You should submit your document as a Word (.doc or.docx) or Rich Text Format
(.rtf) file for best compatibility.
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Exercise 1: Data Interpretation
Dissolved oxygen is oxygen that is trapped in a fluid, such as water. Since many living organism
requires oxygen to survive, it is a necessary component of water systems such as streams
lakes and rivers in order to support aquatic life. The dissolved oxygen is measured in units of
ppm (parts per million). Examine the data in Table 4 showing the amount of dissolved oxygen
present and the number of fish observed in the body of water the sample was taken from, finally
answer the questions below.
Post-Lab Questions
1. What patterns do you observe based on the information in Table 4?
2. Develop a hypothesis relating to the amount of dissolved oxygen measured in the water
sample and the number of fish observed in the body of water.
3. What would your experimental approach be to test this hypothesis?
4. What would be the independent and dependent variables?
5. What would be your control?
6. What type of graph would be appropriate for this data set? Why?
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7. Graph the data from Table 4: Water Quality vs. Fish Population (found at the beginning of
this exercise).
8. Interpret the data from the graph made in Question 7.
Exercise 2: Experimental Variables
Determine the variables tested in the each of the following experiments. If applicable, determine
and identify any positive or negative controls.
Observations
1. A study is being done to test the effects of habitat space on the size of fish populations.
Different sized aquariums are set up with six goldfish in each one. Over a period of six
months, the fish are fed the same type and amount of food. The aquariums are equally
maintained and cleaned throughout the experiment. The temperature of the water is kept
constant. At the end of the experiment the number of surviving fish is surveyed.
A. Independent Variable
B. Dependent Variable
C. Controlled Variables/Constants
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D. Experimental Controls/Control Groups
2. To determine if the type of agar affects bacterial growth, a scientist cultures E. coli on four
different types of agar. Five petri dishes are set up to collect results
One with nutrient agar and E. coli
One with mannitol-salt agar and E. coli
One with MacConkey agar and E. coli
One with LB agar and E. coli
One with nutrient agar but NO E. coli
All of the petri dishes received the same volume of agar, and were the same shape and size.
During the experiment, the temperature at which the petri dishes were stored, and at the air
quality remained the same. After one week the amount of bacterial growth was measured.
A. Independent Variable
B. Dependent Variable
C. Controlled Variables/Constants
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D. Experimental Controls/Control Groups
Exercise 3: Testable Observations
Determine which of the following observations are testable. For those that are testable
Determine if the observation is qualitative or quantitative
Write a hypothesis and null hypothesis
What would be your experimental approach?
What are the dependent and independent variables?
What are your controls - both positive and negative?
How will you collect your data?
How will you present your data (charts, graphs, types)?
How will you analyze your data?
Observations
1. A plant grows three inches faster per day when placed on a window sill than it does
when placed on a on a coffee table in the middle of the living room.
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2. The teller at the bank with brown hair and brown eyes is taller than the other tellers.
3. When Sally eats healthy foods and exercises regularly, her blood pressure is 10 points
lower than when she does not exercise and eats fatty foods.
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4. The Italian restaurant across the street closes at 9 pm but the one two blocks away
closes at 10 pm.
5. For the past two days, the clouds have come out at 3 pm and it has started raining at
3:15 pm.
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6. George did not sleep at all the night following the start of daylight savings.
Exercise 4: Conversion
For each of the following, convert each value into the
designated units.
1. 46,756,790 mg = _______ kg
2. 5.6 hours = ________ seconds
3. 13.5 cm = ________ inches
4. 47 C = _______ F
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Exercise 5: Accuracy vs. Precision
For the following, determine whether the information is accurate, precise, both or neither.
1. During gym class, four students decided to see if they could beat the norm of 45 sit-ups
in a minute. The first student did 64 sit-ups, the second did 69, the third did 65, and the
fourth did 67.
2. The average score for the 5th grade math test is 89.5. The top 5th graders took the test
and scored 89, 93, 91 and 87.
3. Yesterday the temperature was 89 F, tomorrow its supposed to be 88 F and the next
day its supposed to be 90 F, even though the average for September is only 75 F
degrees!
4. Four friends decided to go out and play horseshoes. They
took a picture of their results shown to the right
5. A local grocery store was holding a contest to see who could most closely guess the
number of pennies that they had inside a large jar. The first six people guessed the numbers
735, 209, 390, 300, 1005 and 689. The grocery clerk said the jar actually contains 568
pennies.
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Exercise 6: Significant Digits and Scientific Notation
Part 1: Determine the number of significant digits in each number and write out the specific
significant digits.
1. 405000
2. 0.0098
3. 39.999999
4. 13.00
5. 80,000,089
6. 55,430.00
7. 0.000033
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8. 620.03080
Part 2: Write the numbers below in scientific notation, incorporating what you know about
significant digits.
1. 70,000,000,000
2. 0.000000048
3. 67,890,000
4. 70,500
5. 450,900,800
6. 0.009045
7. 0.023
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Part 2
Show table or graph or pictures of your lab work.
Biology 102/103
Lab 2: The Chemistry of Life
INSTRUCTIONS
and submit it via the Assignments Folder by the date listed in the Course
Schedule (under Syllabus).
To conduct your laboratory exercises, use the Laboratory Manual located under
Course Content. Read the introduction and the directions for each exercise/experiment
carefully before completing the exercises/experiments and answering the questions.
Save your Lab 2 Answer Sheet in the following format: LastName_Lab2 (e.g.
Smith_Lab2).
You should submit your document as a Word (.doc or.docx) or Rich Text Format
(.rtf) file for best compatibility.
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Pre-Lab Questions
1. Nitrogen fixation is a natural process by which inert or unreactive forms of nitrogen are
transformed into usable nitrogen. Why is this process important to life?
2. Given what you have learned about the hydrogen bonding shared between nucleic acids in
DNA, which pair is more stable under increasing heat: adenine and thymine, or cytosine and
guanine? Explain why.
3. Which of the following is not an organic molecule, Methane (CH 4), Fructose(C6H12O6)
Rosane (C20H36), or Ammonia (NH3)? How do you know?
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Experiment 1: Testing for Proteins
Data Tables and Post-Lab Assessment
Table 1: A Priori Predictions
Sample
Initial Color
Final Color
Is Protein Present?
Initial Color
Final Color
Is Protein Present?
1. Albumin
Solution
2. Gelatin
Solution
3. Glucose
4. Water
5. Unknown
Sample
1. Albumin
Solution
2. Gelatin
Solution
3. Glucose
4. Water
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5. Unknown
Table 2: Testing for Proteins Results
Post-Lab Questions
1. Write a statement to explain the molecular composition of the unknown solution based on
the results obtained during testing with each reagent.
2. How did your a priori predictions from Table 1 compare to your actual results in Table 2? If
there were any inconsistencies, explain why this occurred.
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3. Identify the positive and negative controls used in this experiment. Explain how each of
these controls are used, and why they are necessary to validate the experimental results.
4. Identify two regions which proteins are vital components in the human body. Why are they
important to these regions?
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5. Diet and nutrition are closely linked to the study of biomolecules. Describe one method by
which you could monitor your food intake to ensure the cells in your body have the materials
necessary to function.
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Experiment 2: Testing for Reducing Sugars
Data Tables and Post-Lab Assessment
Table 3: Testing for Reducing Sugars Results
Sample
Initial Color
Final Color
Reducing Sugar
Present
1 - Potato
2 - Onion
3 - Glucose Solution
4 - Water
5 - Unknown
Post-Lab Questions
1. What can you conclude about the molecular make-up of potatoes and onions based on the
test you performed? Why might these foods contain these substance(s)?
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2. What results would you expect if you tested ribose, a monosaccharide, with Benedicts
solution? Biuret solution?
Experiment 3: What Household Substances are Acidic or
Basic?
Data Tables and Post-Lab Assessment
Table 4: pH Values of Common Household Substances
Substance
pH Prediction
pH Test Strip Color
Acetic Acid (Vinegar)
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Sodium Bicarbonate Solution
(Baking Soda)
Post-Lab Questions
1. What is the purpose of determining the pH of the acetic acid and the sodium bicarbonate
solution before testing the other household substances?
2. Compare and contrast acids and bases in terms of their H+ ion and OH- ion concentrations.
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3. Name two acids and two bases you often use.
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Solution ID:351124 | This paper was updated on 26-Nov-2015

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